Month: December 2023

Different Software Development Life Cycle Methodologies with their key characteristics

Software Development Life Cycle Methodologies

There are several different software development life cycle methodologies. Some of these are a good choice for specific projects, while others may not be appropriate for all situations.

One of the most common models is Waterfall. This model is a sequential process where each stage must be completed before the next can begin.


This software development methodology is ideal for teams that want to develop a product according to fixed and unchanging requirements set at the beginning of the project. It also works well for projects that require a high degree of process definition.

The system and software requirement phase is followed by the design phase where a technical solution is created. This can include layouts, scenarios, and data models. This design is then transformed into a physical design using specific hardware and software technologies.

The coding and testing phase then converts the logical design into an actual application. Once the application passes testing, it can be deployed to users and rolled out for use. Documenting the process and communicating clearly can help avoid misunderstandings and delays in this phase.


The iterative model is a cyclical software development model that allows developers to revisit and improve the overall system based on user feedback. It also allows developers to resolve risks and issues early in the process, which reduces the likelihood of larger problems later in the project.

The initial iteration of the development process starts with a basic implementation of the software requirements. This implementation is called an increment and is evaluated by the stakeholders and end-users for its functionality and alignment with the overall requirements.

This initial increment is used to determine further requirements for the next iteration of the development cycle. The process is repeated until the software meets the required functionality. This model requires collaboration and teamwork. It also relies on realistic timeboxes to ensure that activities are completed within a manageable timeline.


This method focuses on the customer and stakeholder experience and promotes flexibility by enabling change in iterations. It is best suited for situations where functional portions of software are needed quickly, project stakeholders are available for input and collaboration between teams is possible.

This model divides a product’s development into short iterations called sprints. Each iteration typically lasts between two and four weeks with a set completion time. The iteration process is based on the Agile methodology and requires regular feedback from customers and stakeholders.

Iterative features are integrated, tested and prepared for deployment during this phase. This includes performance testing, security assessments and documentation updates. The team also hosts consistent or daily meetings to maintain open communication and accountability. They use “information radiators” to share progress and status reports with the entire team.


The Spiral model is an iterative model that uses several cycles to produce a software product. The process is similar to the Waterfall model but includes a test phase for each cycle. This model is a good choice for large projects that need frequent releases, and it allows for more opportunities for refinement. It also allows for a more detailed evaluation of the product, and it allows teams to pinpoint additional requirements.

This model includes four phases called spirals that consist of planning, risk analysis, engineering or development, and evaluation. Each stage involves determining objectives and finding different alternate solutions. This model is ideal for handling risky projects because it allows for risk analysis and risk management at each phase. It is also flexible with changing requirements and open to feedback from customers.


This methodology enables developers to work on smaller increments, and reduces the risk of large schedule and budget overruns. It also enables the project team to focus on the most important features from the business point of view.

A prototype is developed based on the initial project requirements and then reviewed. Based on feedback, multiple iterations are conducted that eventually lead to the final software development. This model reduces the chances of developing software that does not meet customer expectations.

This model works best for projects where the final system’s requirements are not known in detail ahead of time. During each iteration, the prototype is reworked until an acceptable design is achieved from which the complete system can be developed. This model is a good choice when the client needs a working prototype quickly.

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Software: The 4 Main Types

4 Main Types of Software

Software is any set of instructions or data that describes a computer program and instructs it how to perform tasks. It is contrasted with hardware, which describes the physical aspects of a computer system.

There are 4 main types of software that serve a variety of technological needs. They range from the operating systems that manage hardware resources to application software that empowers end users.

1. Application software

Application software carries out specific user functions and caters to various areas of life such as productivity, entertainment and education. It allows users to efficiently and effectively organize data, primarily by creating and managing spreadsheet systems (such as Microsoft Excel).

It also includes word processing software, which assists with the creation of documents such as handouts or manuscripts; presentation software, which facilitates the delivery of presentations; and database software, which helps store, manage and explore information. In addition, it contains programs that help users keep track of their work progress and productivity through online management systems or project management tools.

It can also be used to perform multimedia functions and create images, videos or audio files. This type of software is often found on mobile devices and can also be downloaded for personal use, such as Angry Birds or WhatsApp. It can be run alongside system and middleware software on a computer. It begins to operate when the device is turned on and stops operating when it is switched off.

2. System software

System software is a set of computer programs that manages the hardware and provides an environment for application programs to work in. This category of computer software includes operating systems, device drivers and other utility programs.

Computer manufacturers develop this type of software as part of the computer system. It acts as an interface between the computers hardware and application software, so it must be fast and efficient. This category of computer software also has to be written in a low-level language that the central processing unit and other hardware can understand.

Individuals don’t typically interact with system software directly. Instead, they use the graphical user interfaces it creates.

Examples of system software include the operating systems found on desktop and mobile devices, programming language translators and device drivers that enable connections between the central computer and additional hardware like keyboards and mouses. Also included in this category are security programs like antivirus software and optimisation tools such as disk defragmentation.

3. Middleware

Without middleware, different software applications would need to be programmed in a variety of ways to communicate with each other. This isn’t impossible, but it can be time consuming and less efficient. Middleware software provides a way for different systems to interact with one another by creating a common language and framework, such as web services, JavaScript object notation, REST (representational state transfer), XML or SOAP (simple object access protocol).

Middleware can perform many functions, but a few of the most important include:

4. Driver software

Unlike application software, which handles tasks at a high level and is not specific to a hardware platform, device drivers operate at the very low level of the OS kernel layer. Using a computer subsystem or a computer bus connected to the hardware, they communicate with it and execute device instructions. Then they transmit the results of these operations back to the operating system.

Every hardware component or peripheral plugged into a computer requires driver software to function. The software programs act as a translator between an OS and the hardware, sending commands to it and assigning duties.

Essentially, it is the hardware equivalent of application software. In modern computer systems, hardware and software are intertwined and neither can operate without the other. The amalgamation of these two gives control and flexibility to computers that we rely on in our daily lives. Without them, the world would be a very different place. Hence, both the terms are often used interchangeably.

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Develop front-end and back-end programming skills through an online bachelor’s program at Southern New Hampshire University.

Become a Software Developer at Northwest Technical College

Every company needs software created or updated – whether it’s websites, mobile apps, video games or core programs that run the business. This specialized online bachelor’s from Southern New Hampshire University will help you develop front-end and back-end programming skills employers seek. See how this degree ranks compared to others on College Factual’s Computer Software & Applications list.


Students will learn front-end and back-end web/software development through several milestone exercises and hands-on projects. The coursework will cover a number of programming/web technologies including HTML, CSS, JavaScript, ASPX, PHP and JSP, as well as database technologies like SQL Server and MySQL.

This program is offered both on campus and online to accommodate your busy schedule. Courses are delivered in 8-week sessions. Interested in learning more? Our highly qualified Enrollment Specialists would be happy to assist you.

WCTC offers multiple degree programs in the field of computer software/applications. For more information about completing a degree in this field, you can speak with an enrollment specialist at any of our campuses. You can also see how NWTC ranks compared to other colleges offering a similar degree. Click on the links to the right for more details. The majority of grads in this area are white. WCTC has credit transfer agreements with many four-year universities to allow students to complete their baccalaureate degrees, often at junior-level status.

Career Opportunities

Graduates of NWTC’s two-year Software Development program are in high demand. Employers want these workers for their critical tech skills, including website design, technical support and analytics. Every business, large and small, has some type of software that needs to be created or updated. This may be a website, core programs that run the business or something they sell for profit. Software developers work with a variety of languages and tools to create these products for businesses and individuals.

*Please note that you must be currently enrolled in an aid eligible program to apply for a work study position. Click here for current semester specific application deadlines and to view available work study job openings.


Whether you’re starting your career, looking to upskill, or changing careers, NWTC offers a variety of programs and degrees to fit your schedule. Whether it’s a short-term credential, a technical diploma or an associate degree. We offer both on campus and online classes to fit your needs.

The IT-Web and Software Developer program gives you the opportunity to learn the skills required for a career in web/software development. You will hone your skills working with Windows, browsers, databases and integrated development environments. The curriculum is also designed to help you transfer into a 4-year university program.

NWTC is committed to student success, which includes providing opportunities for students to gain real-world experience through internships and other work-based learning activities. Dave Kairys, an instructor in the IT-Web and Software Developer program, suggests that high schools work with NWTC to get students interested in this field as early as possible. He believes this will help to solve the problem of a lack of younger engineers coming into startups.

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